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Dorina Grossu created a new topic ' Relative Cost/Error' in the forum. 1 hour 36 minutes ago

The curve is an error profile and traces the relationship between classification errors and tree size. It is called a Relative Cost curve or Relative Error and it is scaled between 0 and 1. Zero means no errors or a perfect fit and 1 represents the performance of random guessing.


Dorina Grossu created a new topic ' Decision Tree- CART(classification and regression tree)' in the forum. 3 hours 8 minutes ago

MetricsAlgorithms for constructing decision trees usually work top-down, by choosing a variable at each step that best splits the set of items.[15] Different algorithms use different metrics for measuring "best". These generally measure the homogeneity of the target variable within the subsets. Some examples are given below. These metrics are applied to each candidate subset, and the resulting values are combined (e.g., averaged) to provide a measure of the quality of the split.Gini impurityNot to be confused with Gini coefficient.Used by the CART (classification and regression tree) algorithm for classification trees, Gini impurity is a measure of how often a randomly chosen element from the set would be incorrectly labeled if it was randomly labeled according to the distribution of labels in the subset. The Gini impurity can be computed by summing the probability p i {\displaystyle p_{i}} of an item with label i {\displaystyle i} being chosen times the probability ∑ k ≠ i p k = 1 − p i {\displaystyle \sum _{k\neq i}p_{k}=1-p_{i}} of a mistake in categorizing that item. It reaches its minimum (zero) when all cases in the node fall into a single target category.To compute Gini impurity for a set of items with J {\displaystyle J} classes, suppose i ∈ { 1 , 2 , . . . , J } {\displaystyle i\in \{1,2,...,J\}} , and let p i {\displaystyle p_{i}} be the fraction of items labeled with class i {\displaystyle i} in the set. I G ⁡ ( p ) = ∑ i = 1 J p i ∑ k ≠ i p k = ∑ i = 1 J p i ( 1 − p i ) = ∑ i = 1 J ( p i − p i 2 ) = ∑ i = 1 J p i − ∑ i = 1 J p i 2 = 1 − ∑ i = 1 J p i 2 {\displaystyle \operatorname {I} _{G}(p)=\sum _{i=1}^{J}p_{i}\sum _{k\neq i}p_{k}=\sum _{i=1}^{J}p_{i}(1-p_{i})=\sum _{i=1}^{J}(p_{i}-{p_{i}}^{2})=\sum _{i=1}^{J}p_{i}-\sum _{i=1}^{J}{p_{i}}^{2}=1-\sum _{i=1}^{J}{p_{i}}^{2}}


Dorina Grossu created a new topic ' Logistic regression' in the forum. 3 hours 34 minutes ago
Logistic regression is used in various fields, including machine learning, most medical fields, and social sciences. For example, the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS), which is widely used to predict mortality in injured patients, was originally developed by Boyd et al. using logistic regression.[3] Many other medical scales used to assess severity of a patient have been developed using logistic regression.[4][5][6][7] Logistic regression may be used to predict the risk of developing a given disease (e.g. diabetes; coronary heart disease), based on observed characteristics of the patient (age, sex, body mass index, results of various blood tests, etc.).[8][9] Another example might be to predict whether an Indian voter will vote BJP or Trinamool Congress or Left Front or Congress, based on age, income, sex, race, state of residence, votes in previous elections, etc.[10] The technique can also be used in engineering, especially for predicting the probability of failure of a given process, system or product.[11][12] It is also used in marketing applications such as prediction of a customer's propensity to purchase a product or halt a subscription, etc.[13] In economics it can be used to predict the likelihood of a person's choosing to be in the labor force, and a business application would be to predict the likelihood of a homeowner defaulting on a mortgage. Conditional random fields, an extension of logistic regression to sequential data, are used in natural language processing.


Dorina Grossu created a new topic ' Receiver operating characteristic' in the forum. 3 hours 44 minutes ago
The ROC curve was first developed by electrical engineers and radar engineers during World War II for detecting enemy objects in
battlefields and was soon introduced to psychology to account for perceptual detection of stimuli. ROC analysis since then has been used in medicine, radiology, biometrics, forecasting of natural hazards,[5] meteorology,[6] model performance assessment,[7] and other areas for many decades and is increasingly used in machine learning and data mining research.


Dorina Grossu created a new topic ' Hopeless Realism by George Monbiot' in the forum. yesterday

The oligarchic control of wealth, politics, media and public discourse explains the comprehensive institutional failure now pushing us towards disaster. It is not just governments that have failed to respond, though they have failed spectacularly. Public sector broadcasters have deliberately and systematically shut down environmental coverage while allowing the opaquely-funded lobbyists that masquerade as think tanks to shape public discourse and deny what we face. Academics, afraid to upset their funders and colleagues, have bitten their lips. Even the bodies that claim to be addressing our predicament remain locked within destructive frameworks.


Education will be done through the "robots" but the question is rather about how much students will be interested to learn unless there will be an... Show more

Dorina Grossu created a new topic ' Reduce inequalities' in the forum. 2 days ago

The international community has made significant strides towards lifting people out of poverty.  The most vulnerable nations – the least developed countries, the landlocked developing countries and the small island developing states – continue to make inroads into poverty reduction.  However, inequality persists and large disparities remain regarding access to health and education services and other assets.There is growing consensus that economic growth is not sufficient to reduce poverty if it is not inclusive and if it does not involve the three dimensions of sustainable development – economic, social and environmental. Fortunately, income inequality has been reduced both between and within countries. At the current time, the per capita income of 60 out of 94 countries with data has risen more rapidly than the national average. There has been some progress regarding creating favorable access conditions for exports from least developing countries as well.To reduce inequality, policies should be universal in principle, paying attention to the needs of disadvantaged and marginalized populations. There needs to be an increase in duty-free treatment and continuation of favoring exports from developing countries, in addition to increasing the share of developing countries’ vote within the IMF. Finally, innovations in technology can help reduce the cost of transferring money for migrant workers.

Full recognition of degrees and certifications through International Accredited Organizations


Corruption can only be reduced when org. become rather socially involved in eliminating the large income gaps between top and bottom... Show more

When we will be able to know all the links that exist between the body/brain/mind and soul, we will be able to make changes within a timely manner... Show more

Fact is stock market relies on CEO's and their board of directors (top-level) rather than on the "people", "processes" and the level of... Show more

One of Pareto's equations achieved special prominence, and controversy. He was fascinated by problems of power and wealth. How do people get it? How... Show more

Cristi Etegan created a new topic ' DISHWASHING - Big waste of time on not?' in the forum. 6 days ago

A lot of people see DISHWASHING as the waste of time but its the productivity hack of two richest people on the earth.
Bill Gates and Jeff Bezos have been quoted multiple times that they wash dishes after dinner.

Why are they doing that?
- It helps them in playing their part in house management.- Break from office Routine- Close the DAY properly.- Be the Role Model for Kids.

Research supports that washing dishes not only helps relieve stress but also allows one’s creativity to shine. Warmth of the water and smell of the soap help keep the brain stimulated.

Ask yourself- when do the best ideas occur to you?
While you are seated at your work station thinking hard?
OR When you are taking a trip to the bathroom or showering for that matter?
It is so because when you are engaged in ‘less-thrilling’ tasks, your brain gets a chance to wander.

So next time you see the dirty dishes, YOU KNOW WHAT TO DO!


Dorina Grossu created a new topic ' A good source for information regarding SPC' in the forum. 7 days ago

As most of our students and users know, we promote MINITAB and their products but BPI software have SPC by using the Excel Software that has an affordable price.

I also found Bill McNeese very helpful while the information posted on their website can be found in our courses since the examples are easy to understand.


Historically, a lot of the problems were due to poor decisions on the part of Microsoft. For example—you open a Word document that someone emailed you—and it would go off and execute any script that was attached to it. So just opening an email would ...

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As for those educated through "logic", it is easier to think in that way while those "educated" through senses will find many other diverse paths... Show more

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"Moral values" are values that need to be shared by all humans. How far and apart do we stand today? #moralvalues #peace

In a very large majority of cases, rules exist because the "common sense" never existed; common sense never "leaves" a person, society, country... Show more

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