For adult education and training participation rates, labour force surveys remain the data source with the highest potential for monitoring, although data are available only for a limited number of countries. In Europe, the EU Labour Force Survey (LFS), carried out quarterly since 1983 in 33 countries, is the official source of information
on adult education, which is defined to include ‘all learning activities undertaken ... with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competences, within personal, civic, social or employment-related perspectives’ (Eurostat, 2017b). It covers participation in both formal and non-formal education and training during the four weeks prior to the interview.Analysis of the 2007–2016 data suggests notable gender differences. Women are more likely to participate in education and training in all population groups defined by age and labour force status except those who do not actively participate in the labour force (Figure 5.a). There is considerable inequality in participation by age. In 2016, 17% of 25- to 34-year-olds participated in education and training, compared to 6% of 55- to 64-year-olds (Figure 5.b).